Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse; Which Came Initial, the Chicken or the Egg?
Terry V. Hites
Dual Diagnosis as well as Co-Occurring Disorders
December six, 2008
Schizophrenia and substance abuse; which came first, the chicken or the egg? This is certainly a greatly debated matter within families of schizophrenics that abuse alcoholic beverages. In this daily news I hope to research the prevalence of substance work with with those that suffer from schizophrenia, the age of starting point and the regarding first work with, treatment issues, recovery concerns, and finally, the problems regarding the excessive rate of suicidal thoughts, endeavors, and completions within this certain population of people. " The 2002 Countrywide Survey upon Drug Make use of and Wellness in the United States discovered that more than 23% of adults suffering from serious mental illness mistreated alcohol or other prescription drugs. In the population without a serious mental condition only almost 8. 2% mistreated alcohol or perhaps other medications. Among adults who mistreated alcohol or other prescription drugs, 20. 4% had a critical mental illnessвЂќ (Cherry, 2007, p. 37). " Over 75% of men and women with a co-occurring disorder who were surveyed during treatment reported a history of childhood physical abuseвЂќ (p. 38). Strangely enough enough, studies have shown that people are readily willing to addresses their drug abuse but are less than willing to recognize their co-occurring mental health issues (p. 49-50). " The lifetime frequency of substance use disorders (SUD) in schizophrenia is usually close to fifty percent. Substance abuse in schizophrenia is definitely associated with numerous negative implications, including psychotic relapses criminality, homelessness, joblessness, treatment non-compliance, and wellness problemsвЂќ (Potvin, 2007, l. 792). Through this population, " substance abuse is highly prevalentвЂќ (p. 792) not just used by some of the people; but people will mistreatment substances to cope with the negative or positive symptoms of their illness. When viewing the symptoms that they encounter, Potvin goes on to say, " addicted schizophrenia patients experience more severe depressive symptoms, in accordance with non-abusing patientsвЂќ (p. 793). Furthermore, your research also demonstrates males have the depression more severe than females (p. 797); the despression symptoms scale involves anhedonia, psychotic motor reifungsverzogerung, etc . (p. 796). Keith goes on to claim, " Substance abuse affects about half of people with schizophrenia and can behave as a obstacle to complianceвЂќ (2007, g. 259). " The life time prevalence of substance abuse (excluding smoking) in patients with schizophrenia have been estimated being approximately thirty-five to 55%вЂќ (p. 260). " Moreover to encountering these worse symptoms, or perhaps potentially likewise as a result, psychological problems such as occupational, casing or financial difficulties and crime are endemic in the dual-diagnosis populationвЂќ Keith claims (p. 261). When reviewing the prevalence of the co-occurring disorders, you are likely to be remiss to not identify the charge of each.
" It could be appealing to conclude that PAS [psychoactive substances] employ exacerbates depressive symptoms in a subgroup of schizophrenia sufferers, because long-term use of alcoholic beverages, cannabis and cocaine is usually associated with depressive symptomsвЂќ (Potvin, 2007, l. 797). Though these dire may be came to the conclusion, it is also vital that you not " draw inferences about connection, and the change explanation may not be ruled out. That is certainly, severe depressive symptoms might lead patients to use PAS, as proposed by the self-medication hypothesisвЂќ (p. 797). " Psychoactive substance use in juveniles and adults is highly correlated with a number of psychiatric diagnoses, including schizophrenia. Adults with schizophrenia have a 3 times higher prevalence of substance make use of disorders (SUD's) than the matching age group in the US general population. " (Hsiao, 2007, p. 88). While the amount of research data on this age bracket is limited as a result of studies certainly not addressing these people, it is difficult to generalize the info collected (p. 88)....
Referrals: Cherry, A. L., Dillon, M. Electronic., Hellman, C. M., В & В Barney, L. D. (2007). The AC-COD Screen: Speedy Detection of men and women with the Co-Occurring Disorders of Substance Abuse, Mental Illness, Domestic Violence, and Trauma. Diary of Dual Diagnosis*, [No Volume/Issue], 35-53. Academic Search Complete. Ebsco Web host. OSU/Lima Grounds Lib., Lima, OH. 10 October 2008.
Hsiao, Ur., В & В McClellan, T. (2007). Drug abuse in Early Onset Psychotic Disorders. Journal of Dual Diagnosis*, [No Volume/Issue], 87-99. Academic Search Complete. Ebsco Host. OSU/Lima Campus Lib., Lima, WOW. 10 Oct 2008.
Keith, В S. (2007). Dual Associated with Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia: Enhancing Compliance with Pharmacotherapy. Scientific Schizophrenia & Related Trouble, 1(3), 259-269. Academic Search Complete. Ebsco Host. OSU/Lima Campus Lib., Lima, ALSO. 10 Oct 2008.
Kuppin. (2008). Open public Conceptions of Serious Mental Health issues and Drug abuse, Their Triggers and Therapies: Findings in the 1996 Standard Social Review. American Record of Public well-being, 96(10), S120. Academic Search Complete. Ebsco Host. OSU/Lima Campus Lib., Lima, OH. 10 October 2008.
Potvin. (2007). Meta-analysis of depressive symptoms in dual-diagnosis schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 41(10), 792-799. Educational Search Full. Ebsco Web host. OSU/Lima Campus Lib., Lima, OH. 15 October 08.